English Basic Explanation - Chapter 11
Rashi explains this chapter of Tehillim as referring primarily to Do'eig, a servant of King Shaul who encouraged and assisted the king in his pursuit of David. As told in the Book of Shemuel I (chapter 22), Do'eig, following the orders of King Shaul, murdered the entire population of Nov, a city of Kohanim, to avenge their having assisted David as he fled from Shaul.
David makes reference here to Do'eig's various crimes against him, beginning with his forcing David to constantly flee from place to place like a bird by fueling Shaul's hatred for him (verse 1). He speaks as well of Do'eig's lies about David, which he compares to lethal arrows (verse 2; see also Yirmiyahu 9:2,7), and the destruction of Nov (verse 3). David reminds his enemies that although God resides far away in the heavens, He observes and takes note of men's actions here on earth. As a God who despises cruelty and violence, He will assuredly visit retribution upon the perpetrators of evil.
In reference to Do'eig's massacre of Nov, David exclaims (verse 3), "For [if] the foundations are destroyed – what has the righteous one done?" As Rashi explains, David emphasizes that the perpetrators of this crime – Shaul and Do'eig – bear responsibility for the spilt blood of Nov's residents, whereas he – "the righteous one" – is innocent. Apparently, Shaul and Do'eig had thought they could turn the people against David by casting the blame for this atrocity upon him. This, perhaps, is the lie that David's foes fire like arrows, as he described in the previous verse. Despite these slanderous accusations, David remains confident that his innocence will be recognized, and it is they, and not he, who will one day be called to justice for perpetrating this unspeakable crime.