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David opens Psalm 144 by expressing his gratitude to the Almighty for granting him the military skill to defeat his enemies. Accordingly, a number of commentators, including the Radak and Ibn Ezra, claim that this chapter was composed after David ascended to the throne and eliminated the threat posed by the Pelishtim and other neighboring enemy countries. Unlike most successful generals and monarchs, who credit themselves with their nation's victories, David unequivocally attributes his success solely to God, recognizing that it was the Almighty who enabled him to defeat Israel's otherwise insurmountable foes. He goes so far as to compare the human being to "nothingness" (verse 4), declaring that without God's assistance man is a feeble, helpless creature. Thus, David's dazzling success on the battlefield can only be attributed to God's intervention, without which no army can ever achieve victory.
As this Psalm progresses, we find David expressing his fear of his enemies who seek to destroy him (verses 5-11). Even after securing Israel's borders, King David recognizes that threats to his kingdom's stability remain, and that many harsh battles must still be waged before peace and tranquility prevail. He thus prays to God to continue assisting him and to ensure that the threatening nations do not undermine the extraordinary success that the Almighty had mercifully granted His people thus far.
The final section of this chapter (verses 12-15) describes the great blessings that God has showered upon Am Yisrael, the blessings of healthy, beautiful children and material prosperity. David recognizes that his kingship has heralded a new era in the history of the Jewish people, a period of great military and economic success after several centuries of instability and hardship. He looks upon this development and exclaims, in this Psalm's final verse, "Fortunate is the nation that is such, fortunate is the nation whose God is Hashem!" Now that the nation has returned to the faithful service of the Almighty, rejecting, once and for all, the pagan worship that had been rampant during the period of the Shofetim (Judges), they are fortunate to have earned God's protection and blessing, and to finally enjoy the great rewards that the Torah promises the Jewish people for their Torah observance.